Biological cells found in all multi-cellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis), differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more biological cells are called Stem Cell. In mammals, there are two broad types of cells: embryonic cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blasto-cysts, and adult cells, which are found in various tissues.
In year 1908: The term “Stem cell” was proposed for scientific use by the Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov (1874–1928) at congress of hematologic society in Berlin. It postulated existence of hematopoietic cells.
Difference between adult cell and embryonic cell
One major difference between adult and embryonic cells is their different abilities in the number and type of differentiated cell types they can become. Embryonic cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluri-potent. Adult cells are thought to be limited. Embryonic cell and adult cells both have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies.
There are three sources of adult cells:
1) Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone,
2) Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction, and
3) Blood, which requires extraction through pheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor, (similar to a blood donation) passed through a machine that extracts the cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor.
While embryonic stem cell lines are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass of either blasto-cyst or of earlier morula stage in embryos.
In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injuries, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions, bone marrow transplantations that is used to treat leukemia can be an example
Achievement and scope
The procedure was performed by associate professors of neurosurgery Kee Kim and Rudolph Schrot. It used bone marrow-derived adult cells to promote the growth of the bone tissue essential for spinal fusion following surgery, as part of a nationwide, multicenter clinical trial of the therapy.
The researchers are also working on precursor cells, a layer of fat in the scalp that shrinks when the hairs die and when a new hair begins to grow, that same layer of fat expands in a process called adiposeness. The stems cells that control that process are called precursor cells that can triggers and restore hair growth in bald men.